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Test, just a test
Forum: Growing: General Discussion
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MrBotanist: Grow Progress...
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LUXX 645W LED Review
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Cloning 101 with CloneX (...
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Greenmile Hydroponics
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The Surprising Three-Part...
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N-P-K numbers?
Forum: Nutrients
Last Post: TheBeast
09-01-2021, 03:36 PM
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Understanding Nutrients
Forum: Nutrients
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Simple guide to principle...
Forum: Growing: General Discussion
Last Post: TheBeast
09-01-2021, 03:27 PM
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  Test, just a test
Posted by: XRumerTest - 07-30-2022, 10:49 PM - Forum: Growing: General Discussion - No Replies

Hello. And Bye.

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  лучшее порнуха бесплатно без регистрации
Posted by: Henrytwirl - 07-21-2022, 11:39 PM - Forum: Growing: General Discussion - No Replies

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скачать самое скачиваемое порнуху
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1_49425

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  LUXX 645W LED Review
Posted by: TheBeast - 10-05-2021, 03:50 PM - Forum: Lighting - No Replies

Thinking about getting new lights for the grow. Just watched this review - what are your thoughts?

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  Cloning 101 with CloneX (DIY Guide)
Posted by: TheBeast - 10-05-2021, 03:45 PM - Forum: DIY - No Replies

[Image: s-l400.jpg]





WHY YOU SHOULD CLONE 

Cloning is a tried and true method for continued success in your garden. To keep your favorite strain in rotation you will need to take clones. A clone is a cutting (a small piece of plant that’s been cut off) that has re-established roots and is a genetic replication of the mother plant. This guide will take you through the steps to successfully root a cutting. Once you’ve mastered the art of cloning you’ll be well on your way to keeping your favorite genetics in rotation and having a self-sustaining garden. No more buying clones from questionable outlets or worrying about bringing in pests from someone else’s garden.



Mother Plants

A mother plant is a plant that has been specifically grown to provide cuttings for starting new plants i.e. clones. The cutting will be genetically identical to the mother, which is why you want to choose a mother that is a strong grower with good genetics. In other words, a healthy plant. Using a fertilizer formulated for the needs of mother plants, like MotherPlant brand fertilizer, is important for the successful rooting of clones. A good fertilizer for mother plants is one that limits excess nitrogen and provides the important building blocks for carbohydrate accumulation. The excess nitrogen contained in standard fertilizers results in low carbohydrate reserves and poor rooting of clones.



MotherPlant fertilizer is formulated to strengthen the cell walls of plants, improve water holding capacity and stress tolerance. This results in energized cuttings that are better prepared to generate healthy new roots. MotherPlant nutrients can be found online and in hydro stores across the United States. For the serious grower that wants to successfully clone their favorite strain, or just keep their garden going, this is an important step. Your mother plant should be watered a few hours before you plan to take cuttings. This ensures that the cuttings will be well nourished and hydrated, preparing them for successful cloning. It’s also recommended to spray Clonex Mist on the chosen donor sights a few days before taking clones. This will help to stimulate root development in your cuttings.



Supplies 



Taking a clone can be as simple, or as complicated, as you want it to be. There are multiple techniques and products on the market for cloning. For this guide, we’re going with a simple but effective method. The following are items you’ll need to successfully clone.



• Mother Plant 

• Rooting Gel 

• Shot Glass 

• Scalpel or Razor 

• Scissors aren’t recommended as they can crush the cutting’s delicate tissue. 

• Be careful not to cut yourself when taking your cutting. 

• Starter Cubes 

• Propagation Tray 

• Humidity Dome 

• Clonex Mist

[Image: clonex-clonex-rooting-gel-50ml.jpg]

TAKING A CLONE 

Your mother plant is picked out and all your supplies are ready. Now it’s time to take some cuttings. 

Step 1. Sanitize Wash your hands. Then sterilize your equipment. Rubbing alcohol is an ideal choice for sterilizing. 



Step 2. Set up your work area. Have your items laid out and ready to go. A few things you’ll want to do now include: 

• Pour Clonex Rooting Gel into your shot glass. 

• Take packaging off your Starter Cubes 

• Root Riot Starter Cubes are available in both a ready-to-use propagation tray and bags of 50 or 100 count. 



Step 3. Choose your cuttings. You’ll want to choose a branch that looks healthy. Things you’re looking for in a cutting are: 

• Branches on the lower part of the plant 

• Strong growing tips 

• Multiple nodes (leaf nodes are where the leaf connects to the stem) 



Step 4. Take your cutting. Once you’ve chosen a branch, use your scalpel to remove the branch. You’ll want to cut just below the node (the area from which leaves grow) at a 45-degree angle. 



Step 5. Dip the cutting in Clonex Rooting Gel. Dip it directly into the rooting gel you’ve added to your shot glass. Make sure the entire cut area, and its surrounding stem, is covered in the rooting gel. This will stop air from affecting the cut surface area. Air exposure at this point can cause air bubbles that will prevent your cutting from taking up water and eventually rooting. At this point you should clip the fan leaves, reducing the leaf area by 50%.



Step 6. Place the cutting into your Root Riot Starter Cube. Once you’ve finished taking your cuttings and placed them in a propagation tray it’s time to add your humidity dome. You do not want to have leaves pressed up against the dome walls or stuck between the dome and the tray. Make sure you’ve spaced your cuttings to avoid either of these from happening. 



Step 7. Spray your cuttings. Place tray under suitable lighting. Spray your cuttings with Clonex Mist every other day to ensure they don’t dry out. Beyond that, leave the cuttings alone. Most plants will root in 7 – 10 days, but some could take up to 2 weeks or longer. When you see roots coming out of the cube then you’re ready to transplant.



TRANSPLANTING 

Once you see roots coming out of your starter cubes it’s time to transplant. Most growers tend to use a cup (like the small, red Solo cups) to transplant their newly rooted clones into. The clones are still fragile at this point and should be treated the same as they were when they were cuttings. 



Step 1. Prep Fill your cup halfway with your chosen soil or soilless mix. Sprinkle Clonex Root Maximizer, a mycorrhizae, on to the exposed roots. Root Maximizer will help to extend the overall reach of your plant’s roots. This means your plant will be able to reach water and nutrients that might not be available otherwise. Basically, it helps the plant get more of what it needs to thrive. 



Step 2. Transplant Place your rooted clone in the center of the cup and fill in the remaining space with your soil, or soilless medium, and pack it just over the top of the starter cube. The soil should be packed gently so as not to disrupt the delicate roots or stress the clone, but also tightly so that the clone will not tip over. 



Step 3. Feed Water your clone with Clonex Clone Solution, a clone-specific nutrient. A regular Grow formula at this stage can burn your plant, most likely resulting in a stunted or dead clone.



Clonex Rooting Gel has been helping growers successfully clone for three decades. Billions of clones are proof of the effectiveness of using Clonex. 



Clonex Rooting Gel Clonex Rooting Gel contains a unique proprietary formula in a tenacious gel which will remain in contact around the stem, actually sealing the cut tissue and then supplying the hormones needed to promote root cell development. It is manufactured under strict pharmaceutical laboratory conditions and is, consequently, years ahead of old fashioned hormones and powders. 



Clonex Gel is recommended over powder rooting agents. Powder rooting agents: 

• Can and will be blown around 

• Will wash off the stem when watered 

• Contains talc - a carcinogen Clonex Rooting Gel is EPA registered in all 50 states plus Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico. 



This means it’s approved for use on all crops, including food or ingestible crops. It’s also the only rooting gel approved by the Colorado and Washington Dept. of Agriculture for propagating medical plants. Clonex Rooting Gel is used at the beginning of propagation to help seal your cuttings delicate root tissue and provide the necessary environment for successful rooting. Clonex Clone Solution Clonex Clone Solution is specifically formulated for rooted clones and seedlings. It contains a special blend of minerals and vitamins that encourages rapid root development. Clonex Clone Solution contains specific micro nutrients, and the highest quality minerals including Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, and Calcium, plus Vitamin B1 which reduces the risk of transplant shock. It is formulated to nourish new root cells in plants. Used with Clonex Rooting Gel, it encourages rapid root development while helping to minimize stress. 



Clonex Mist Clonex Mist is a foliar spray that is for both mother plants and clones to stimulate root development. It is formulated to boost the health and vigor of young plants while promoting robust root development and the elongation of root hairs. Independent trials showed that the use of Clonex Mist vs. water alone to mist cuttings resulted in: 

• Rooting up to 10 days sooner 

• 30% longer roots 

• Up to 156% more roots



Clonex Root Maximizer 

Clonex Root Maximizer is a mycorrhizae fungus product which increases the surface area of your clone’s roots. Mycorrhizae fungus extends the plants reach, allowing it to get more of what it needs. Mycorrhizae fungus is a network of filaments that grow in and around the plant root cells. This forms a mass that extends considerably beyond the plant’s root system, making the plant stronger and more resistant to stress. It even protects your plant against unwanted pathogens. Clonex Root Maximizer puts life into your soil by adding bountiful amounts of mycorrhizae fungi, beneficial bacteria and Trichoderma that combine to improve the overall health and vitality of plants.



Root Riot Plant Starter Cubes

Root Riots are ideal for rooting plant cuttings! They are pH balanced and pre-moistened, so they are ready to use right out of the bag or in the tray. Made from Canadian peat moss, Root Riot cubes have a great spongy texture which retains the perfect air/water ratio for healthy, rapid root growth. 



MotherPlant Nutrients 

MotherPlant nutrients are formulated for mother, or stock plants but can be used throughout the vegetative cycle of your plants with impressive results. It contains the perfect diet for mother plants without excess nitrates. Rich bio-organics are added to improve the uptake of nutrients and strengthen the plant’s natural immunity resulting in strong, vibrant clones. 



Rockwool Conditioning Solution 

Europonic Rockwool Conditioning Solution is an advanced formulation of ingredients that stabilizes and adjusts the pH of rockwool for maximum nutrient utilization by plants. It is ideal for pre-conditioning rockwool and stonewool cubes before starting clones or transplants.

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  Greenmile Hydroponics
Posted by: TheBeast - 10-01-2021, 03:09 PM - Forum: Nutrients - No Replies

If you are in the SoCal area near the IE, dont be shy - come on by and check us out. We carry some of the most extensive lineups of nutrients, amendments, additives, soils, and lighting to fit your needs! Our warehouse stocks over 4,000 items ready to ship or instore pickup today. Also offering free local deliveries**

You can browse our catalogs @ https://greenmilehydro.com 

Also, stay tuned for our FREE LIVE DIY series we are about to launch - both in-person, as well as on zoom.


[Image: IMG-0175.jpg]

** Free local delivery within 25mi radius - excludes heavy bulk items.

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  The Surprising Three-Part Base Nutrient System Veteran Growers Swear By
Posted by: TheBeast - 09-07-2021, 10:19 PM - Forum: Nutrients - No Replies

[Image: Three-Part-Base-Nutrient-System-Jungle-Juice.jpg]
The Surprising Three-Part Base Nutrient System Veteran Growers Swear By
Many growers swear by their old-school formulations. And it’s like they say…
If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.
But did you know that not every three-part base nutrient system is created equal? That’s right. Even if they’ve got the same obvious benefits — familiarity, flexibility, feeding program control — the subtle differences from brand to brand can add up to a massive variance in the quality of your crop.
That’s why we sell [b]Jungle Juice[/b]…
And why the demand for this base nutrient system never waivers.
Now, there are three questions growers ask us all the time before they make the switch:


What makes Jungle Juice different from other three-part base nutrient systems?


Should I use Jungle Juice or one of Advanced Nutrients' pH Perfect® lines for my grow?


What's the exact application of Jungle Juice?

We’re explaining it all right here…
So if you’re wondering whether Advanced Nutrients Jungle Juice is the right choice for your cannabis plants, then pay close attention to what comes next.

How Is Jungle Juice Different Than Your Traditional Three-Part Base Nutrient System?

No doubt, Jungle Juice bears some similarities to conventional three-part base nutrient systems you’ve seen on the hydro store shelves for years.
And that’s great news for growers who are most comfortable with old-school hydroponic nutrient solutions.
Composed of Grow, Micro, and Bloom components, Advanced Nutrients’ Jungle Juice features both NPK and the micronutrients cannabis plants need to thrive.
So can this base nutrient system actually raise your cannabis cultivation game?
The answer is yes — and here’s why:
In reality, most three-part base nutrient systems have been on the market since the late 1970’s.
That means they’ve remained virtually unchanged — for DECADES.
And while we recognize that many growers aren’t looking to reinvent the wheel, we knew we could provide a superior three-part base nutrient system…
One that combines the best of those conventional formulations with modern-day advancement your cannabis plants will love.
So with Jungle Juice, you’ll still enjoy the same perks you’re used to, including the ability to follow familiar recipes and dial in your own nutrient ratios.
However, you’re also getting…


Increased quality control


Higher quality elements


A better range of chelation

And when you combine those three benefits, you’re setting yourself up for success…
Without having to change your feeding program or dial in a new set of products.
By the way, Jungle Juice is just as cost-effective as alternative solutions, meaning you save money by purchasing a superior product.
Now that you understand the difference, let’s take a look at the second question we’re often asked…

Which Hydroponics Nutrients Are Right For Me — Jungle Juice or the pH Perfect[size=1]® Products?[/size]

Many newcomers to the Advanced Nutrients line ask us this question when trying to decide between our different base nutrient systems.
And chances are, if the question even crosses your mind, then the pH Perfect® line is a better fit for your cannabis plants.
To put it simply, our pH Perfect® base nutrient system is a more modern and comprehensive nutrient, and many of our top growers rely on them to achieve award-winning cannabis cultivation.
HOWEVER…
If you [i]love[/i] old-school formulations and want to stick with what you know, Jungle Juice is a fantastic upgrade that your plants will undoubtedly love.
Here are three scenarios that make you the perfect fit for Advanced Nutrients’ Jungle Juice:


You’re switching over from another old-school line. In fact, you can even mix and match bottles if you’ve still got some of your old base left, so you never have to worry about throwing away unused products.


You’ve got your own customized recipes that involve multiple products with varying levels of compatibility.


Your schedules are geared towards super-tight economies of scale.

No matter which base nutrient you choose, it’s also important to understand best practices for maximizing yields. This way, your nutrients can support the technique you’ve put in place for optimal success.
Alright, now that we’ve covered who will benefit most from Jungle Juice, let’s get to the final question most growers have about this product.


[font=Archivo Black]What’s the application of Advanced Nutrients’ Jungle Juice?

[/font]

proper feeding schedule plays a huge part in the success of your cannabis cultivation.
And as you can probably tell by now, one of the biggest benefits of Jungle Juice is that it allows for a ton of versatility.
And you can still use many of the customized recipes that have been circling around the industry for ages.
For example, if you’ve always used the Lucas Formula — a recipe that originated on the online forums in the late 1990s and early 2000s — Jungle Juice can accommodate your current routine perfectly.
And in case you’re searching for a new recipe, the back of the Jungle Juice bottle features a traditional 3-2-1 1-2-3 application you can use. Once you’ve gotten familiar with that, the sky’s the limit when it comes to dialing in the perfect nutrient ratios for your cannabis plants.
[font=Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]The Bottom Line…

If you’re familiar with conventional formulations, but still want to introduce modern advancements into your grow, then Advanced Nutrients’ Jungle Juice is the ideal three-part base nutrient system for your grow.
And when you put it to work for you in your garden today, you’ll benefit from strict quality control measures, superior inputs, and a better range of chelation.

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  N-P-K numbers?
Posted by: TheBeast - 09-01-2021, 03:36 PM - Forum: Nutrients - No Replies

[Image: Heavy-16-Product-Shots-1G-FIRE_600x.jpg?v=1629825362]

Every label carries three conspicuous numbers, usually right above or below the product name. These three numbers form what is called the fertilizer's N-P-K ratio — the proportion of three plant nutrients in order: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K).

By Dr. Lynette Morgan
[font='Memphis W01', Times, serif]What do the numbers and letters mean?[/font]
If you (vaguely!) remember the periodic table from high school chemistry, you know that N stands for Nitrogen, P for Phosphorus, and K for potassium. These nutrients are the three numbers on a fertilizer bag listed in order (N-P-K). So, a fertilizer that contains 5-10-10 means it has 5 percent nitrogen, 10 percent phosphorus (phosphate), and 10 percent potassium (potash). A “complete” fertilizer contains all three.



What do the different nutrients do?

Each nutrient plays a different role. Nitrogen boosts green leafy growth. “It’s like the gas pedal,” says John Esslinger, horticulture educator at Penn State Extension. “That’s why many lawn fertilizers are high in nitrogen to promote leafy growth.” Phosphorus helps strong roots form, so plants lacking in phosphorus may be purple-ish and slow-growing. Potassium helps promote vigorous growth and hardiness, so a deficit may result in wimpy fruit or spindly plants that fall prey to pests and diseases.



How do I pick a formula?

Now you’ve got some homework to do. “Before you add anything to your lawn or garden, get a soil test,” says Esslinger. “Otherwise, you have no idea where you’re starting from and what your soil needs or doesn’t need.” In fact, some nutrients, such as phosphorus, are good at staying in the soil; you may not need to add them every time you fertilize. And more is not better. It’s not only a waste of money to add stuff you don’t need—it’s also bad for the plants. For example, too much nitrogen will grow monster tomato plants, but you may not get any fruit. And really, then, what’s the point?

Get your soil test kit from a local garden center or your area’s coop extension service; they’re typically about $10 to $20, and you only need to do one every few years. The master gardener at the county extension service can help you decipher the results and explain how much of each nutrient you need to apply. A balanced fertilizer (with all the same numbers, such as 5-5-5) may be okay for many situations such as flower and vegetable gardens, but only a soil test will tell for sure.
[font=Charter, Georgia, Times, serif]Finally, your test also will include your soil’s pH, a measure of how acidic or alkaline your soil is. It’s another important aspect of soil fertility because if your pH is too high or too low, your plants may not be able to use the nutrients you apply, says Esslinger. Based on your test results, an application of lime to raise pH or sulfur to lower pH may be recommended.[/font]

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  Understanding Nutrients
Posted by: TheBeast - 09-01-2021, 03:33 PM - Forum: Nutrients - No Replies

Article 4-1 Nutrients Too Much or Too Little

[font=Lato, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]Nutrients – Under and Over Use
By Dr. Lynette Morgan[/font]


Introduction
Nutrients are the basis of any hydroponic system and since we need to meet all of the plants nutritional requirements, it’s important to know what you are supplying and what can go wrong. With any nutrient solution the two factors to keep in mind are firstly the composition of your nutrient – does it contain all of the elements required for plant growth in the correct ratios. And secondly, with your balanced and complete nutrient solution, what strength or ‘EC’ should it be running at for your particular crop, stage of growth and type of hydroponic system, and how do we measure this.
[font=Lato, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]The nutrient solution – composition

Many growers prefer to buy a ‘pre-mixed’ nutrient solution which simply needs to be diluted (for liquid concentrates) or dissolved in water before use. Often these ‘pre-made’ nutrients come in 2, 3, 4 or even more ‘parts’ so a grower can change the ratio of the mineral elements to allow for either vegetative or fruiting growth or for different crops. There are many excellent brands of these pre-mixed nutrients on the market, however, many growers have come across major problems when they try to use some of the ‘indoor plant food’ or other nutrients which have been designed for plants growing in soil or a pre fertilized potting mix. Often these types of products are not suitable for hydroponics because they are not designed to be a ‘complete plant food’. It is always preferable to buy a nutrient mix which is sold especially for ‘hydroponic’ use, and is a ‘complete’ plant food. To be ‘complete’ a hydroponic nutrient needs to have the essential elements for plant growth these are:[/font]

  • Nitrogen (N)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • Sulphur (S)
  • Iron (Fe)
  • Manganese (Mn)
  • Copper (Cu)
  • Zinc (Zn)
  • Molybdate (Mo)
  • Boron (B)
  • Chlorine (Cl)
The levels that these elements are present in your hydroponic nutrient tend to vary between brands, since there is no one single recommendation for concentrations. Many nutrients may also contain some of the ‘beneficial elements’ such as Nickel (Ni), Cobalt (Co), Silica (Si) or Selenium (Se). While these are not ‘essential’ (plants will still grow without them), they can be beneficial to many crops.
[font=Lato, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]Nutrient Problems

Whether you make your own nutrient solution from the different fertilizer salts, or buy a pre-made brand, problems can, an often do, arise with deficiencies of one of more of the nutrient elements. Common reasons for this are that (1) the nutrient strength may be too low, resulting in insufficient nutrients for the plants in general. (2) The nutrient formula you are using may not be completely balanced, and one (or more of the elements) may be deficient. (3) Occasionally, growers may unintentionally leave out one of the fertilizer salts or the wrong fertilizer was used when the nutrient formula was weighted out. And just to complicate matters further, even if your solution is well balanced, sometimes environmental and internal plant conditions prevent the uptake of certain nutrients and deficiency symptoms then result.
Signs of Deficiency
Each of the mineral elements required by the plant has its own set of ‘deficiency signs and symptoms’ and growers can learn to identify many of these. Many of the signs are similar in appearance, but others are very distinct and most good gardening and hydroponic books will detail what these signs are. Briefly the deficiently symptoms for each of the elements are listed below (these may vary slightly between different plant species and depending on how severe the deficiency is):
Deficiency Symptoms
[b]Nitrogen (N):[/b] Plants are short, leaves tend to be pale green-yellow in color, especially on the older foliage. On tomato plants, the undersides of the leaf and stems can develop a purple coloration.
[b]Phosphorus (P):[/b] Plants are usually stunted, and a dark green color. Symptoms occur on the older leaves first and plant maturity is often delayed. Phosphorus deficiency in some plant species can be due to conditions being to cold for uptake of this element, rather than a lack of phosphorus in the nutrient solution.
[b]Potassium (K):[/b] The older leaves become yellowed with scattered dark (brown or black) spots, followed by tissue death. Severe deficiency will stunt the plant and all foliage will become yellowed and curled. On lettuce the leaves may take on a yellowed, bronzed appearance starting on the older foliage.
[b]Sulfur:[/b] Deficiency of sulfur is not common – there may be a yellowing of the leaves, first seen on the new growth.
[b]Magnesium:[/b] Deficiency is common on tomato crops with the older leaves developing yellowed areas between the veins which stay green.
[b]Calcium:[/b] Young leaves are affected before older leaves and become distorted, small in size with spotted or necrotic (dead) areas. Bud development is inhibited and root tips may die back. Tip burn on lettuce is a symptom of calcium deficiency but is also caused by other factors not associated with a solution deficiency. Blossom end rot of tomatoes is also caused by a deficiency of calcium within the fruit tissue (not necessary in the nutrient solution), and is more of a ‘calcium transport’ problem within the plant under certain environmental conditions.
[b]Iron:[/b] Deficiency shows as a distinct yellowing between the leaf veins which stay green, on the new growth and younger leaves (this distinguishes it from magnesium deficiency which shows first on the older leaves). On crops such as tomatoes, iron deficiency may show when conditions are to cold for uptake, rather than be caused be an actual deficiency in solution.
[b]Chlorine:[/b] deficiency shows as wilted leaves which then become yellowed and necrotic, eventually turning a bronze color.
Roots become stunted and thickened near the tips.
[b]Manganese:[/b] Initially, an interveinal yellowing on the younger or older leaves, depending on the plant types. Brown, dry areas may develop and leaves may drop.
[b]Boron:[/b] Plant size is usually reduced, the growing point may die back. Root tips often become swollen and discolored. Leaves eventually become thickened, brittle, and may be curled with yellow spotting.
[b]Zinc:[/b] Short plants with a reduction in internode length and leaf size. Leaf edges may be distorted or puckered, Yellowing between the leaf veins may also develop.
[b]Copper:[/b] Deficiency is rare, but young leaves may become dark green and twisted or misshapen, often with brown, dry spots.
[b]Molybdenum:[/b] Older leaves develop interveinal yellowing, progressing to the younger leaves. Leaf edges may develop scorching or cupping of the leaves.
Solution strength – under and over use, measurement
Provided the nutrient you are using is complete and balanced, the concentration or strength of the solution has major effects on plant growth and development. This is why it is essential to be able to measure solution concentration, using a meaningful unit of measure. Many growers will still be working in ppm, using TDS meters, however there is now an industry move to standardize the unit of solution measurement to EC (electrical conductivity) which is a more accurate and meaningful way to monitor your nutrient. All a TDS or ppm meter actually does is to measure the EC of the solution, then use an approximate conversion figure to convert this to PPM. The problem arises is that this conversion figure is never very accurate, as different nutrient solutions with different compositions of nutrient elements will have different PPM values so using one conversion figure can be extremely inaccurate. What the plants root system is actually responding to is the EC (or osmotic concentration) of the nutrient so this is what we should measure. There are a number of different EC (sometimes called CF) meters, and the ‘water resistant’ pen type meters are commonly used by growers. Depending on where in the world you are, the units expressed on your meter may be different, however it is easy to convert between the different units of EC.
The most commonly used units are either Microsiemens/cm (EC) or conductivity factor (CF) (depending on which country you are in). Other units used or often expressed in crop recommendations are: Millimhos, micromhos, or millisiemens (mS). The conversion between all of these units is:
1 millisiemen (EC) equals 1 millimhos, equals 1,000 microsiemens, equals 1,000 millimhos, equals 10 CF.
It is simply a matter of shifting the decimal place to convert between the different units.[/font]

[url=https://www.simplyhydro.com/product-category/nutrients/][/url]
Running the correct EC for your particular crop and system is important. Some crops such as lettuce and other greens prefer a much lower EC than fruiting crops such as tomatoes, and each crop has its own ideal EC range for optimum growth. When the EC is being run to high for a particular plant, this will show as visible symptoms within the crop. A high EC, effectively puts the plants under ‘water stress’ since the plant cells begin to lose water, back into the more concentrated nutrient solution surrounding the roots. As a result the first sign of nutrient ‘overuse’ is plant wilting, even when supplied with sufficient nutrient solution. If the high EC conditions re not too severe, the plants will adjust to these conditions and you may see growth which is ‘hard’ in appearance – often a darker green then usually, with shorter plants and smaller leaves. When the EC is being run to low, the opposite occurs – greater amounts of water are taken up, growth will be soft and floppy and often a lighter green in appearance.
Fruit will have less flavour and the quality of the whole crop – in terms of dry matter, shelf life, firmness and colour will be reduced. Since other factors affect EC also, such as water uptake from the solution, concentrating the nutrients during warm periods, or nutrient uptake, dropping the EC under a different environmental conditions it is vital that the EC is measured, monitored and adjusted on a regular basis.
By focusing on the two most important solution factors – nutrient balance and nutrient concentration, the hydroponic solution will give maximum growth and yields. When things do go wrong, being able to correctly identify a deficiency symptom before it begins to severely effect your plants is also important, so as always, closely watching what your crop is doing is a growers best line of defence against solution problems

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  Simple guide to principles and hydroponic methods
Posted by: TheBeast - 09-01-2021, 03:27 PM - Forum: Growing: General Discussion - No Replies

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Hydroponics

Hydroponics is a word derived from Greek consisting of two words: ‘hydro’ meaning water and ‘ponos’ meaning labor. It is a method of crop production in which plants are grown without soil, and nutrients required for plant growth, are supplied through liquid nutrient solution. Plant roots may or may not be supported by artificial substrate such as perlite, vermiculite, rock wool, expanded clay, coconut coir, wooden fiber or a mixture of substrates like perlite and coconut coir (Figure 1).
 
[Image: figure-1-1.jpg]
 
 
[b]Figure 1. [/b]Dutch Bucket System with suspended clay balls.

Nutrient Management
Nutrient management is a method of using crop nutrients as efficiently as possible to improve the productivity without harming the environment. In hydroponics, nutrient management is a very necessary step. Total salt concentration, pH, alkalinity and nutrient concentration ratio are four main characteristics to focus on for nutrient management in soilless culture.
 
Water Analysis
The very first step for hydroponics is to have the water analyzed by a lab such as the Soil, Water and Forage Analytical Laboratory (SWAFL) at Oklahoma State University. Test for pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and alkalinity. Poor-quality water can cause nutrient toxicity or deficiency problems initially or later in production. Water naturally consists of salts like sodium, calcium, magnesium bicarbonates, chlorides and sulfates. These salts can affect EC and pH of the nutrient solution and should not be above the acceptable level (Table 1).


[font=Rubik, sans-serif][b]Table 1.[/b] Acceptable values for common nutrients found in water.[/font]
Sodium

Acceptable value (ppm)
<50

Calcium

Acceptable value (ppm)
<150

Magnesium bicarbonate

Acceptable value (ppm)
<50

Chloride

Acceptable value (ppm)
<140

Sulfate

Acceptable value (ppm)
<100



What is Total Salt Concentration?

Nutrients are applied in the form of salts, and when these salts dissolve into water they break down into ions. For example, NaCl breaks down into Na+ and Cl– ions. These ions conduct electricity due to their positive and negative ions. Thus, the conductivity of the solution increases with added ions. So EC is a good measure of amount of salts in the solution. A higher EC means higher salt concentration, while a lower EC means a lower salt concentration.

 
[font=Rubik, sans-serif]Excessively high levels of nutrients induce osmotic stress, ion toxicity and nutrient imbalance, while excessively low values are mostly accompanied by nutrient deficiencies and decreasing plant growth. In soilless culture, total salt concentration of a nutrient solution is the most important characteristic. Conductivity Factor (CF) is a measure of the electrical conductivity of a nutrient solution read in mS/cm (millisemen per centimeter) and sometimes given as μs/cm, which can be multiplied by 1,000 to convert to mS/cm.
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[font=Rubik, sans-serif][font='Fjalla One', sans-serif]
Electrical Conductivity and pH Guide for Hydroponics
[/font]
[/font]

Published Apr. 2017|Id: HLA-6722

By Hardeep Singh, Bruce Dunn






Hydroponics

Hydroponics is a word derived from Greek consisting of two words: ‘hydro’ meaning water and ‘ponos’ meaning labor. It is a method of crop production in which plants are grown without soil, and nutrients required for plant growth, are supplied through liquid nutrient solution. Plant roots may or may not be supported by artificial substrate such as perlite, vermiculite, rock wool, expanded clay, coconut coir, wooden fiber or a mixture of substrates like perlite and coconut coir (Figure 1).

 

[Image: figure-1-1.jpg]

 

 

[b]Figure 1. [/b]Dutch Bucket System with suspended clay balls.

 

 

 

 

Nutrient Management

Nutrient management is a method of using crop nutrients as efficiently as possible to improve the productivity without harming the environment. In hydroponics, nutrient management is a very necessary step. Total salt concentration, pH, alkalinity and nutrient concentration ratio are four main characteristics to focus on for nutrient management in soilless culture.

 

Water Analysis

The very first step for hydroponics is to have the water analyzed by a lab such as the Soil, Water and Forage Analytical Laboratory (SWAFL) at Oklahoma State University. Test for pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and alkalinity. Poor-quality water can cause nutrient toxicity or deficiency problems initially or later in production. Water naturally consists of salts like sodium, calcium, magnesium bicarbonates, chlorides and sulfates. These salts can affect EC and pH of the nutrient solution and should not be above the acceptable level (Table 1).

 

[b]Table 1.[/b] Acceptable values for common nutrients found in water.

Sodium

Acceptable value (ppm)
<50

Calcium

Acceptable value (ppm)
<150

Magnesium bicarbonate

Acceptable value (ppm)
<50

Chloride

Acceptable value (ppm)
<140

Sulfate

Acceptable value (ppm)
<100



What is Total Salt Concentration?

Nutrients are applied in the form of salts, and when these salts dissolve into water they break down into ions. For example, NaCl breaks down into Na+ and Cl– ions. These ions conduct electricity due to their positive and negative ions. Thus, the conductivity of the solution increases with added ions. So EC is a good measure of amount of salts in the solution. A higher EC means higher salt concentration, while a lower EC means a lower salt concentration.

 

Excessively high levels of nutrients induce osmotic stress, ion toxicity and nutrient imbalance, while excessively low values are mostly accompanied by nutrient deficiencies and decreasing plant growth. In soilless culture, total salt concentration of a nutrient solution is the most important characteristic. Conductivity Factor (CF) is a measure of the electrical conductivity of a nutrient solution read in mS/cm (millisemen per centimeter) and sometimes given as μs/cm, which can be multiplied by 1,000 to convert to mS/cm.

 

What is pH?

pH is a measure of how acidic or basic the solution is at the time of reading. The range goes from 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral. The pH of a nutrient solution influences the availability of nutrients, so it should be maintained in the optimum range. Nutrient solutions used for soilless culture should have a pH between 5 to 6 (usually 5.5), so the pH in the root environment is maintained between 6 to 6.5. This is the pH range at which nutrients are most readily available to plants.

 

Alkalinity

Alkalinity is a term used to express the concentration of bicarbonate (or carbonate, if pH is above 8.2) in ‘natural’ or uncontaminated waters. Bicarbonate (HCO3-) is alkaline and therefore elevates the pH. High alkalinity water (>75 ppm) will cause the pH to increase in the nutrient solutions. For this reason, it is necessary to check the pH of the nutrient solution more frequently whenever high-alkaline water is used. Alkalinity can be removed by using an acidic fertilizer; adding an acid such as phosphoric acid, citric acid or vinegar; or by reverse osmosis. Reverse osmosis is a process of purifying the water by pushing water using hydrostatic pump through a semipermeable membrane.

 

Difference Between Soil and Soilless Culture

In soil culture, soil acts as a buffer and helps to maintain a specific pH and EC suitable for plant growth (Table 2). This buffer is absent in soilless culture, so it is important to maintain an environment suitable for plant growth artificially.

 

[b]Table 2[/b]. Optimum range of electrical conductivity (EC) and pH values for hydroponic crops.

Asparagus

EC (m $/cm)
1.4 to 1.8

pH
6.0 to 6.8

African Violet

EC (m $/cm)
1.2 to 1.5

pH
6.0 to 7.0

Basil

EC (m $/cm)
1.0 to 1.6

pH
5.5 to 6.0

Bean

EC (m $/cm)
2.0 to 4.0

pH
6

Banana

EC (m $/cm)
1.8 to 2.2

pH
5.5 to 6.5

Broccoli

EC (m $/cm)
2.8 to 3.5

pH
6.0 to 6.8

Cabbage

EC (m $/cm)
2.5 to 3.0

pH
6.5 to 7.0

Celery

EC (m $/cm)
1.8 to 2.4

pH
6.5

Carnation

EC (m $/cm)
2.0 to 3.5

pH
6

Courgettes

EC (m $/cm)
1.8 to 2.4

pH
6

Cucumber

EC (m $/cm)
1.7 to 2.0

pH
5.0 to 5.5

Eggplant

EC (m $/cm)
2.5 to 3.5

pH
6

Ficus

EC (m $/cm)
1.6 to 2.4

pH
5.5 to 6.0

Leek

EC (m $/cm)
1.4 to 1.8

pH
6.5 to 7.0

Lettuce

EC (m $/cm)
1.2 to 1.8

pH
6.0 to 7.0

Marrow

EC (m $/cm)
1.8 to 2.4

pH
6

Okra

EC (m $/cm)
2.0 to 2.4

pH
6.5

Pak Choi

EC (m $/cm)
1.5 to 2.0

pH
7

Peppers

EC (m $/cm)
0.8 to 1.8

pH
5.5 to 6.0

Parsley

EC (m $/cm)
1.8 to 2.2

pH
6.0 to 6.5

Rhubarb

EC (m $/cm)
1.6 to 2.0

pH
5.5 to 6.0

Rose

EC (m $/cm)
1.5 to 2.5

pH
5.5 to 6.0

Spinach

EC (m $/cm)
1.8 to 2.3

pH
6.0 to 7.0

Strawberry

EC (m $/cm)
1.8 to 2.2

pH
6

Sage

EC (m $/cm)
1.0 to 1.6

pH
5.5 to 6.5

Tomato

EC (m $/cm)
2.0 to 4.0

pH
6.0 to 6.5



EC Management

The EC of a nutrient solution can be checked by using an EC meter, which can be bought online and ranges from $100 to $500. A meter that has both EC and pH capabilities is also available (Figure 2). The buffer solution, which can be bought online, is used to calibrate the EC meter (Figure 3).

 

[Image: figure-2-1.jpg]

 

 

 
[font=Rubik, sans-serif][font=Rubik, sans-serif][b]Figure 2. [/b]Combination EC and pH meter.[/font][/font]


[font=Rubik, sans-serif][font=Rubik, sans-serif] [/font][/font]
[Image: figure-3-1.jpg]

 

 

 

[b]Figure 3. [/b]EC buffer solution.

 

 

 

 

Every buffer solution has a specific EC (usually 1.41 mS/cm). After placing the probe in the buffer solution, set the EC meter to that specific EC by adjusting the knob on the EC meter. This allows you to calibrate an EC meter.

 

The following steps should be performed for EC management:

  1. Fill the nutrient tank with tap or filtered water and add fertilizer. Base quantity on the manufacturer recommendation.
  2. Calibrate the EC meter probe using the buffer solution.
  3. Make sure the nutrient solution is stirred up and allow the reading to stabilize, which may take a couple of minutes.
  4. If the reading is higher than the optimum level, dilute the solution by adding more water, then repeat step 3.
  5. If the reading is below the optimum level, add nutrient concentrate until the optimum level is reached by repeating step 3.
  6. Rinse the probe in tap water and store in probe-cleaning fluid.

 

pH Management

The pH of a solution is checked by using a pH meter, which can be bought online and ranges between $100 to $500. A pH meter probe is calibrated using pH buffer solution, which can also be bought online and usually comes in pH 4, 7 or 10 (Figure 4).

 

[Image: figure-4-1.jpg]

 

 

 

[b]Figure 4. [/b]pH buffer solutions.

 

 

 

 

The following steps should be performed for pH management:

  1. Set the desired EC value of the solution.
  2. Calibrate the pH meter probe using the buffer solution. Make sure the nutrient solution is stirred up and allow the reading to stabilize, which may take a couple of minutes.
  3. If the pH reading is high, add phosphoric acid, citric acid, vinegar or pH down products slowly. Wait several minutes before adding more. Repeat until the pH reaches the optimum range.
  4. If the pH is low, add potassium hydroxide, potassium carbonate or a pH up product slowly. Repeat until the pH reaches the optimum range.
  5. Clean the probe and store in cleaning fluid.

 

Important Points

  1. pH should always be checked after getting the EC into the optimum range.
  2. The pH and EC should be checked daily.
  3. Check the pH and EC at the same time of day.
  4. Water temperature of 72 to 75 F is optimal.

 

Refreshing the Nutrient Solution

Water may need to be added daily to refresh and replace water consumed by the plants, depending on your water tank size. Nutrient ratios can vary beyond their desired limits through time, causing deficiencies and toxicities. For example, sodium chloride (table salt) will increase in concentration with the constant addition of water and nutrient adjustments, resulting in toxicities. It is advisable to replace the nutrient solution completely every two weeks.

 

Automatic Monitoring System
[font=Rubik, sans-serif][font=Rubik, sans-serif]The pH and EC can be adjusted manually for small-scale operations, but for commercial farms the amount of solution used in hydroponics is very high, so pH and EC management is time consuming. An automated monitoring system has benefits, such as labor savings, avoiding nutrient shock to plants and removing human error. This system costs between $500 to $4,000.  Manufactures that produce products for automatic monitoring systems include Autogrow, Intellidose, Hanna and CropKing Fertroller System to name a few.[/font][/font]


[font=Rubik, sans-serif][font='Fjalla One', sans-serif]Credit:[/font][/font]
[font=Rubik, sans-serif]Hardeep Singh[/font]

[font=Rubik, sans-serif]Graduate Assistant, Vegetables[/font]

[font=Rubik, sans-serif] [/font]

[font=Rubik, sans-serif]Bruce Dunn[/font]

[font=Rubik, sans-serif]Associate Professor, Floriculture
[/font]

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  Marijuana 101: Grow Lights
Posted by: TheBeast - 08-28-2021, 05:47 PM - Forum: Lighting - No Replies

[Image: Fluorescent-grow-lights-700px.jpg]

So, you’re thinking about growing marijuana and need to know more about grow lights? Whether you’re doing it legally in Colorado or performing a stealth operation in another state, the characteristics of your grow light will have a dramatic effect on the yield of your crops. The type of light also plays a role in your electricity costs. It’s important to understand exactly what to expect with each type of cannabis grow light available, so let’s take a look at some of the key factors that will help you decide which light to buy:
HID (High-Intensity Discharge) lights are the standard for cannabis growing. The most common HID lights for indoor grows are Metal Halide (MH) and High-Pressure Sodium (HPS). HID lights require more electricity and a larger upfront investment than other lighting alternatives, but they can also be considerably more powerful. If you choose an MH or HPS grow light, it’s important to have a high-functioning exhaust system due to the strong aroma of cannabis that will be coming from your grow room. HID lights also give off a lot of excess heat, and an effective exhaust system will help manage this issue.

High-Intensity Discharge
At different phases of the cannabis plant’s life cycle, different HID lights are recommended for the best results. Metal Halide lamps create a blue light that is well-suited for plants in the vegetation stage (this is the time when the plants begin to grow branches and leaves, still in the earlier part of the growing cycle). High-Pressure Sodium lights produce an orange/red light that helps stimulate the plant’s growth hormones during the flowering stage, which mimics autumn for an outdoor grow. HPS lights use high levels of energy but can make a strong impact on the yield during the flowering stage, so it is worthwhile to consider them. Some growers choose Ceramic Metal Halide (CMH) lights, which are in between MH and HPS lights regarding efficiency.
If you choose to go the HID route, you’ll need a ballast to plug it into the wall. You’ll also want to purchase a hood to reflect the light coming from your bulbs. Make sure to match the bulb wattage with the wattage of the lamp (a 600W HID lamp should only use 600W bulbs, etc.).

Fluorescent
Fluorescent lights are the second option. They come in two varieties: CFLs (compact fluorescent lights) and T5 lights. Both are less expensive and more energy efficient than HID lights, and they emit a wide spectrum of light, which is beneficial to the plants. In many cases, growers use fluorescent lights in conjunction with MH or HPS lamps to have a high-powered system that also exposes plants to a wide spectrum of light. Growing cannabis with only fluorescent lights is possible, but the yield will likely be smaller because the lights aren’t as powerful as a typical HID.

LED
A third option and one that is gaining traction in the cannabis industry is LED grow lights. LEDs are smaller and give off less heat than HPS lights, and they can increase yield with better energy efficiency. Because LEDs use less electricity than HPS and MH lights, they are becoming a popular alternative to the standard HID. Environmentally conscious growers also choose LEDs because they don’t contain mercury like HIDs. LEDs also don’t burn the plants like HIDs do when they are placed too close.
LED lights are more expensive than HIDs and require a larger upfront payment, but over a longer period of time, they will bring a higher return on investment due to the lower energy costs. In addition to the cost of keeping HID lamps on, growers will incur significant expenses on fans and exhaust to reduce the level of heat in the grow room. HPS and MH lights also require light bulbs to be changed more often than LED lights, another cost to consider.

Wattage Specs
When purchasing a lighting setup, make sure that the wattage of the bulbs is suitable for your room and your expected yield. Commercial growers tend to use bulbs with higher power than home growers because they need to produce higher yields. For a home grower, a single 1,000W light could be enough for six to eight plants, but purchasing a 400W and 600W lamp and spacing them out in the grow room could spread the light around for a better overall yield. Whether the plant is a sativa, indica, or hybrid can also play a role in the amount of wattage needed. Sativa plants use around 66 watts of light per square foot, while indicas use between 40 and 45 watts (hybrids fall in between at about 60 watts).

[Image: grow-light-with-hps-400px.jpg]

In general terms, more light produces more cannabis, but there’s no need to use too much power and run up the electricity bill. Whereas a commercial grower might have 20 or more 1,000W grow lamps in a room, combined with some additional fluorescent lights to give the plants a greater spectrum of light, a home grower could use just a single 400W or 600W light if they’re only trying to produce two plants in a small closet. For example, a 2′ x 2′ grow room would do fine with a 250W HID, but if the plants are spread over a 5′ x 5′ area, then a 1,000W lamp might do better.
If you’re choosing between a HID and an LED lamp, some pretty straightforward calculations can aid the decision-making process. As previously stated, LED lights are typically more expensive than HIDs, but they have lower monthly costs, which will offset the higher price tag. Spending $969 on a top-notch 600W LED light is a higher upfront investment than spending $300 to $500 on a 600W HPS, but the monthly electricity cost of using an HPS will be higher (also don’t forget you’ll need more fans and a more efficient exhaust system with HPS lights). During the vegetative stage, lamps will be on for 18 hours per day, and during flowering, they’ll be on for 12 hours per day. That’s a large electricity expense, and it’s worth crunching some numbers to see whether it is worth it to make the higher initial investment in an LED.

Be Discreet
It should also be pointed out that if you’re in a state where it’s illegal to grow cannabis, HID lights could potentially make the electric bill jump to the point where it would look suspicious to authorities. HPS lights might also be detectable by thermal imaging techniques used to find infrared heat, where LED lights don’t put out enough heat to be spotted. Having a smaller grow operation is one way to prevent any chance of getting “busted,” so keep all of these factors in mind if you’re in the market for a new lamp.
It’s quite easy to purchase grow lights on the internet. Since they are used for horticultural purposes beyond just cannabis growth, there are no laws against purchasing grow lights like there are with buying marijuana. A quick Amazon search for “cannabis grow light” will send you on your way to finding the lamp that’s right for you. There’s also this list of the best 10 LED grow lights. If you are in a state where cannabis is legal, it couldn’t hurt to stop in a local dispensary and ask the budtenders for some additional thoughts on which brands they prefer. The cannabis industry has a “help each other out” kind of vibe, so don’t hesitate to ask the experts their opinions. Good luck!

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